When designing mechanical access control systems – turnstiles, vehicle barriers, retractable poles bollard type, it is aimed to achieve a control or a protection of the inland input – output of the space to be controlled or protected. The space to be protected is generally prioritized on different levels of security, applying for each level the specific methods for this type of space, that best meet the security requirements imposed.

In case it is desired a strict control of the persons entering a particular restricted space – there are used input systems – like turnstiles. The systems like turnstiles (tripod type, Rotary turnstiles, access gates) are designed to allow access only in the condition that access is individual, so using such systems can be calculated – precisely – the number of persons in a particular area.

In case it is aimed to control vehicular traffic in the access points there are designed systems for access control – access control barriers type. In many of these applications there are used traffic light systems which regulates in time the access to the barrier but usually the barrier can be used without an order from an access control system, for this purpose being used only a remote control or control buttons (closed, open).

Designing the access control systems – retractable poles type aims to achieve systems used to control / limit traffic in urban areas, vehicle access management, for marking bicycle trails, alleys and urban accesses. Also, retractable bollard posts are recommended in areas with heavy traffic, they can be automatically activated by remote control or card by authorized persons.

Once the technical and organizational measures are in agreement, with the beneficiary’s consent, it is proceed to project preparation, following that, based on this, the installation of the designed system will begin.

The components of an access control system

The access control station (or controller) is the central device that connects all field equipments ( card readers , buttons , electromagnets or bolts / electromagnetic locks , extension modules , keypads , sirens , etc.). Also the controller is the device that manages information from the readers (proximity , biometrics, barcode etc.) and commands the mechanical locking elements (electromagnets , locks / electromagnetic locks , turnstiles , gates etc.).

The readers ( of cards , biometrics,of barcodes etc.) are field elements that are accessed by users for them to be checked. They transmit data to the controller that will compare whether the user is registered in the database and can access the objective. If the controller decides that the user is registered in the database with access in that objective, that will activate the mechanical locking element ( electromagnet, locks / electromagnetic locks , turnstile, gate , etc.) , and access will be allowed.

Proximity card readers

are the most commonly used access readers used at this moment. The proximity reader is composed of an antenna and a control unit which converts the signals recieved from the proximity card into the specific communication protocol( Wiegand , RS232, RS485 etc.).

Advantages: the proximity readers are easy to use, the user is only required the proximity card. It provides high speed data transfer to the controller.
Disadvantages: the proximity readers can be easily fooled by a user who stole a valid card .

Biometric Readers - ( fingerprint, hand geometry , face recognition , iris recognition , etc.)

it recognizes the unique biological characteristics of users. The need to install a biometric reader in general appears to objectives that require a high degree of security

Advantages: it can not be fooled by unauthorized persons ( as can happen by finding a code or finding a proximity card ) .
Disadvantages: higher implementation costs compared to other technologies, longer time for verification and recognition.

The mechanic locking elements ( locks / electromagnetic locks , electromagnets , turnstiles , gates etc. ) - provides the mechanical blocking of access roads until thei receive the order of release from the controller after user authentication . The mechanical locking elements can be comanded to open the fire detection systems when it signals a fire alarm .


They are " fail safe " locks that need fueling in order to produce the electromagnetic field and lock the door.


Provides the mechanical blocking of access roads .

Emergency buttons are installed inside a controlled space and can be used during the time when the access control systems are not in service , or they have technical problems .

The buttons are mandatory installed on every controlled door .

Centralization and management equipments are personal computers / servers with access control softwares that manages the access control system, the users and the system functions .

Some programs have also a timekeeping software.